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Interaction of Spirit-writing Cults and Local Society: A Case study of Chaozhou Area
This project is about the history of spirit-writing cults in the Chaozhou area, exploring how the nineteenth century movement of new spirit-writing cults exerted an impact on the Chaozhou area and trying to appraise the role of spirit-writing in local society. It consists of three parts. Firstly, it provides a brief history of spirit-writing as a communication means. Compared with the new type of spirit-writing groups, traditional literati conversed with deities or ancient poets in poetry through planchettes, and was primarily used for solving personal problems. The second section focuses on new changes of spirit-writing since the nineteenth century, that is, numerous new phoenix halls and charitable associations, publication and production of morality books, the prosperity of philanthropic careers, the popularity of the ritual of refining restless bones, etc. The final part comes to relationships among spirit-writing cults, philanthropy and local society. The preliminary research questions are as follows: How did the new type of spirit-writing cults begin in the Chaozhou area? How did it flourish in the first half of the twentieth century? What is the interaction between spirit-writing cults and local society? What is the relationship among various spirit-writing cults?
Qisong and His Contemporaries: Historiographical Thought and Practice in the Northern Song Period
My research project is historiographical thought and practice in Northern Song dynasty(960-1127), focusing on Qisong契嵩(1007-1072) and his contemporaries, to rethink the contribution of a literary monk to Buddhism historiography in the context of Confucian revival and the prosperity of Confucian historiography.
Among literary monks arising in the Northern Song, Qisong was an important figure in religious and intellectual history. He was known to his day as a Chan monk and his most prominent career was to defend and articulate Chan historical lineage. However, I regard Qisong as a great leader in Ancient-style Learning, and it was the Ancient-style Learning that cultivated the historiographical awareness and practice of Qisong and his contemporaries. Furthermore, I view Qisong as a Chanru other than a Chan monk. I suppose his achievements and influence in Confucianism even much more intense and significant than his contribution in Buddhism. His conversant learning in both traditions conditioned him, on the one hand, send Buddhism into the “furnace” of Confucian Revival; on the other hand, send Buddhism into the “museum” of classics and doctrines.
My study will go deeper to comprehend Qisong’s identity, and will shed new light on his enthusiasm of promoting Confucian filial piety as a Buddhist. Firstly, I will address Qisong’s Confucian writings in depth, to examine his historiographical awareness presupposed in his Buddhism history writing. Secondly, I will rethink Qisong’s historiographic awareness in the context of his times. By scrutinizing the historiographical awareness and characteristics of his contemporaries and making comparison, we could reach more profound understanding of Qisong. And vice versa, taking Qisong as a specific example, we could deepen our understanding of his times.
Taiwanese Buddhism and its Internationalization Strategies (guojihua) since the 1980s
My research project is associated with the Collaborative Research Consortium (SFB) 1199: “Processes of Spatialization under the Global Condition”.
I will examine a Taiwanese Buddhist organization’s internationalization efforts in Africa. Particular attention will be paid to the development of new spatial formats resulting from the organization’s engagement with the local culture.
The organization’s transition from a provider of religious services to a diasporic community to a proselytizer of Chinese Buddhism in particular and Chinese culture in general, requires the translation of doctrines and religious practices. The resulting exchange of ideas and personnel between Africa and Taiwan creates hybrid spatial formats that differ from those based on common business interactions.
I aim to critically challenge conceptions of center and periphery and explore the related dynamics of control and decentralization by looking at the transnational structures and local engagements of a religious representative of the sinophone world in Africa.
My research can be situated in the context of studies about contemporary Taiwanese/Chinese Buddhism, but also touches on an under-studied aspect of the research about the expanding political and economic relations between the Chinese speaking world and Africa.
The Transculture of China’s Engineers
Political scientists have remarked on the ascension of technocrats within the Communist Party’s rule after the Mao era. Given a parallel ascension of party technocrats in the Republic of China on Taiwan, there is reason to belief that the roots of this rise did not lie in the political structure of Socialist China, but in the two countries’ shared past. I am arguing that there were precursors to contemporary technocracy. However, there is insufficient research on the process in which technologists gained independence from their patrons and actively began to shape the emergent Chinese nation state.
Urban Religion and Civil Society in the People's Republic of China
Can urban Chinese folk religious organizations be considered examples of civil society? And if so how do they differ from classic examples of civil society suggested by scholars?
This thesis posits that a study of sixty pilgrimage associations in the greater Beijing region centered on Miaofengshan will show that some of these groups are fragile examples of civil society, even as the government tries to coopt them as part of a national campaign to bolster legitimacy by embracing traditional faiths. And while these groups do not have direct political goals, they are part of a broader effort by religious communities to expand freedom of belief and individual agency over key moral questions that the state seeks to shape.
In addition, this work explores the role of invented traditions in today’s China. After more than a century of cultural destruction, state and society are racing to rebuild traditional teachings and faiths–Buddhism, Daoism, and folk religions. These players have differing interests: the state sees faith as a form of legitimacy, while the religious associations see it as a form of link that gives their members a sense of security and continuity with the past. But both are recreating an imagined or idealized past, one that can be useful in filling a widely perceived spiritual vacuum in 21st century China.
Taxation and Modern China: Tracing the Discourse of Lijin in the Republican Period (1912-1949)
I am a Ph.D. student in Sinologie, Ostasiatisches Institut. My research interest is the political and economic history of China. My current research project, supervised by Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Kaske, is a historical study about discourse on taxation and its interaction with social relations in 19-20th century modern China, with a particular focus on the tax of Lijin.
Implemented in 1853, Lijin, literally meaning “one-thousandth unit of currency” in Chinese, was in practice a tax of one percent, or more, on the value of goods, located in shops and collected in transit. Seemingly insignificant, the tax would rise to be among the top three state revenues in Late Qing, and supported the nation’s early efforts in modernization. Lijin not only challenged the existing ideology and social relations, it also outlived the last Chinese monarchy and continued into the Republican era until its turbulent abolishment in 1931. In a period entangled by economic, political and social reforms, history would witness the state’s contradictory, yet helpless dependence on Lijin, making it an interesting case study for the fiscal history of China.
My research applies the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in tracing the historical discussions on Lijin. It aims to outline the relation between Lijin and social relations in Qing Dynasty and Republican China (1912-1949), thus bringing new meanings to theories about taxation and modernization.